NEAR Spacecraft, the first spacecraft to orbit an asteroid

NASA’s NEAR Shoemaker is the first spacecraft to orbit an asteroid and to land on that.


Asteroids, also called minor planets, are small, rocky bodies that are leftover during the formation of planets about 4.5 billion years ago. Billions of such rocks exist in our solar system and majority of them concentrated in the main belt of asteroids between the planets Mars and Jupiter.

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India is launching the most powerful Earth Observation Satellite

ISRO is launching two earth observation satellites (EOS) naming GISAT-1 and RISAT-1A and these are EOS 3 and EOS 4 respectively.
GISAT-1 is going to be the world’s most powerful Earth Observation Satellite which will secure the borders on a Real-time basis.


The GISAT-1 (Geo Imaging Satellite) will be India’s first Indigenous earth observation satellite that is going to be placed in geostationary orbit. This satellite will move with the rotation of the earth, so will look stationary
Its aim is to secure India’s borders in real-time.

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Galileo Project to search for the Extraterrestrial life| Oumuamua

Harvard-based Galileo Project will search for evidence of extraterrestrial life from the alien technology.
Extraterrestrial life is hypothetical life that may exist or may have existed in the universe outside of Earth maybe in exoplanets.


An exoplanet is any planet outside our solar system that can orbit other stars, or can be a free-floating exoplanet also called a rogue planet.
The first exoplanets were discovered in the 1990s and since then thousands of exoplanets were discovered using a variety of detection methods.
It is very rare for astronomers to see an exoplanet through their telescopes which are called direct imaging. A very few exoplanets were discovered through direct imaging.
Most of the exoplanets are found through indirect methods like measuring the dimming of a star that may occur due to a planet passing in front of it, called the transit method, or another method is through Doppler shift.

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What is Pegasus Spyware?| No escape from its attack

It is malware (malicious software) classified as spyware.
Malware is short for malicious software, is any software designed to cause damage to a computer, server, or computer network. Ransomware, Spyware, Trojans, Viruses, Worms, etc are all varieties of malware.
Spyware is malicious software that is designed to enter your computer, gather all the data, and forward it to a third party without your consent.

Pegasus infections can be achieved through “zero-click” attacks.
“Zero-click” attacks are those attacks that do not require any interaction from the phone’s owner in order to succeed.

It is so dangerous that it works both on Android and IOS.

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China’s Xian H-20 strategic stealth bomber- A Game Changer

Xian H-20 strategic stealth bomber with stealth features is the first dedicated bomber that is developed by China.
China became the third country in the world that has stealth technology for fighters after U.S. and Russia.
Now, this stealth bomber is a major concern for the security of India as this stealth bomber can easily move in the Indian region without being detected by the Indian RADAR system.

Xian H-20 Stealth Bomber of China resembles with the Strategic stealth bomber B-2 of US.
The US, in 1990s made a Strategic stealth bomber B-2, which is copied by China by making Xian H-20 Stealth Bomber.

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Voyager 1 and Voyager 2| How NASA is still in contact?| UPSC

In 1977 NASA launched two missions Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 to study the outer planets and then go out from the solar system. In 2012, Voyager 1 reaches interstellar space and became the first human made object to enter interstellar space. The Interstellar space is the space between 2 stars. Voyager 1 reaches interstellar space after crossing Heliosphere. The heliosphere is the space around the sun in which the effect of plasma rays from the sun can be observed. So by crossing the heliosphere means the Voyager 1 has crossed the range of plasma rays from the sun.

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NISAR satellite| NASA ISRO Synthetic Aperture RADAR| What is Synthetic Aperture Radar| UPSC

In the 2019 surgical strike, the data from an ISRO satellite RISAT (RADAR Imaging Satellite) was very helpful. In these satellites, the special thing is that this RADAR can see everything in the ground and doesn’t matter it’s day or night, cloudy or sunny. This is called Synthetic Aperture Radar.

Optical satellites rely on sunlight being reflected back into the space from the ground. So they can not work in dark and also their view is obstructed by clouds. RADAR satellites send the radio signals and record the echo return. So they can take the image even at dark and image is not affected by clouds.

India’s first indigenous radar satellite was RISAT-1.

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What exactly is the Higgs Boson or the God particle| UPSC

The elementary particles in the standard model can be divided into 3 categories:

  • Quarks (which combines to forms Protons, Neutrons, etc)
  • Leptons (Electrons, Muon, etc)
  • Bosons (force carriers like Photons etc)

Quarks and Leptons are called “Fermions” which are the elementary particles and the building block of matter. In this article, we will study “Bosons

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The mystery behind Positron excess from Cosmic Rays| UPSC

Researchers of Raman Research Institute (RRI) Bengaluru have resolved the “Positron excess” mystery. Positron is the antimatter of electron. Antimatter is just the exact opposite of matter means mass, size etc everything same except charge which is opposite. Since electron is negatively charged, positron is just like electron but positively charged.

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