The government is launching an electronic voucher-based digital payment system: e-RUPI

The Indian government is launching an electronic voucher-based digital payment system called e-RUPI which is a cashless and contactless method for digital payment. It is a prepaid UPI e-voucher redeemed either through a QR code or an SMS string.

There is no need of a card, digital payments app, or internet banking access, at the service provider.

This electronic voucher system is already used by many countries like the US, Colombia, Chile, Sweden, Hong Kong, etc.

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NEAR Spacecraft, the first spacecraft to orbit an asteroid

NASA’s NEAR Shoemaker is the first spacecraft to orbit an asteroid and to land on that.


Asteroids, also called minor planets, are small, rocky bodies that are leftover during the formation of planets about 4.5 billion years ago. Billions of such rocks exist in our solar system and majority of them concentrated in the main belt of asteroids between the planets Mars and Jupiter.

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India is launching the most powerful Earth Observation Satellite

ISRO is launching two earth observation satellites (EOS) naming GISAT-1 and RISAT-1A and these are EOS 3 and EOS 4 respectively.
GISAT-1 is going to be the world’s most powerful Earth Observation Satellite which will secure the borders on a Real-time basis.


The GISAT-1 (Geo Imaging Satellite) will be India’s first Indigenous earth observation satellite that is going to be placed in geostationary orbit. This satellite will move with the rotation of the earth, so will look stationary
Its aim is to secure India’s borders in real-time.

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Galileo Project to search for the Extraterrestrial life| Oumuamua

Harvard-based Galileo Project will search for evidence of extraterrestrial life from the alien technology.
Extraterrestrial life is hypothetical life that may exist or may have existed in the universe outside of Earth maybe in exoplanets.


An exoplanet is any planet outside our solar system that can orbit other stars, or can be a free-floating exoplanet also called a rogue planet.
The first exoplanets were discovered in the 1990s and since then thousands of exoplanets were discovered using a variety of detection methods.
It is very rare for astronomers to see an exoplanet through their telescopes which are called direct imaging. A very few exoplanets were discovered through direct imaging.
Most of the exoplanets are found through indirect methods like measuring the dimming of a star that may occur due to a planet passing in front of it, called the transit method, or another method is through Doppler shift.

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India is now the co-chair of Asia Protected Areas Partnership

India is now the co-chair of the IUCN-supported Asia Protected Areas Partnership (APAP) for 3 years till November 2023 after replacing South Korea. Now India is responsible to assist and help other Asian countries in managing the protected areas.

The APAP is chaired by IUCN ( International Union for Conservation of Nature) Asia. It is co-chaired by the member countries of APAP on a rotational basis.

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Protected Areas| What is the difference between Biosphere Reserve and National Park

Protected areas are the areas that require protection because of their natural, ecological or cultural values. The following kinds of protected areas designated by IUCN are in India:

National parks, Wildlife sanctuaries, Biosphere reserves, Reserved and protected forests, Community reserves, Private protected areas

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