Global Peace Index 2021| Iceland tops while Afghanistan remains at the bottom| UPSC

15th edition of Global Peace Index 2021 released by the Institute for Economics & Peace. Iceland topped the index and Afghanistan remains at the bottom position with 163 rank. The GPI (Global Peace Index) covers 99.7% of the world’s population by using 23 qualitative & quantitative indicators from respected sources.
It measures peace through 3 main domains:
1. Level of Safety & Security
2. Ongoing Domestic & International conflict
3. Degree of Militarisation

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47th G7 summit 2021 in the UK| Complete analysis of the meeting| UPSC

The main agenda was to work on a global approach to the covid-19 pandemic.

The PM of India, Narendra Modi called for a “one world, one health” approach. It means all the restrictions put by the US on vaccinations should be removed. All the members agreed in this.

The G-7 nations agreed to provide 1 billion vaccines to other countries.

The G-7 nations also launched the “build back better world” initiative, to fund the development of infrastructure in low and middle-income countries. To counter China on One Belt One Road (OBOR) and its Debt traps, the President of US Joe Biden, gave the proposal of this new initiative “Build Back Better World” (BBBY), and announced a $40 Trillion investment in it. But India didn’t approve it and asked for some time to study the project.

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US-China trade war| Samsung shifts from China to India

Chinese Communist Party misuses trade and tariffs against the other countries. China joined WTO in 2001, so certain conditions were imposed on China. But in reality, China has aggressively misused WTO for its own benefit. Made in China products are present in almost every country in the world. But when it comes to imports, the largest social media networks like Youtube, Facebook, Google, Amazon are not found in China. So China is doing one-sided trade. Instead, China copied these companies and created copycat clones. China replaced Youtube with Youku, Amazon with Alibaba, Google with Baidu, and Facebook with Weibo. Thus China has done Intellectual Property thefts in almost every sector. When any new technology comes, China makes the clones. This is not possible in a democratic country as court case will be filed in the court of that country.

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United Nations decade on Ecosystem Restoration

United Nations decade on Ecosystem Restoration 2021-2030 is launched on World Environment Day on 5th June 2021. Since due to human activities, the degradation of many ecosystems such as landscapes, lakes, oceans, etc is occurring. Ecosystem Restoration is the reversing of this degradation to restore such levels to meet the needs of the society. So it is the restoring of the best possible functionality of the ecosystem.

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Auckland tops the Global Liveability Index 2021| Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU)

Global Liveability Index is the list of most livable cities in the world and is found by the Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU). EIU is a part of Economist Magazine which is a UK-based magazine. Every year EIU takes out a ranking of the most livable cities in the world. Auckland of New Zealand is in the top position of this ranking with a score of 96. This means it is the most livable city in 2021. It is followed by Osaka, Japan, and then Adelaide, Australia. Most of the cities in the top 10 are of Australia. Four cities of Australia are in the top 10.

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Voyager 1 and Voyager 2| How NASA is still in contact?| UPSC

In 1977 NASA launched two missions Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 to study the outer planets and then go out from the solar system. In 2012, Voyager 1 reaches interstellar space and became the first human made object to enter interstellar space. The Interstellar space is the space between 2 stars. Voyager 1 reaches interstellar space after crossing Heliosphere. The heliosphere is the space around the sun in which the effect of plasma rays from the sun can be observed. So by crossing the heliosphere means the Voyager 1 has crossed the range of plasma rays from the sun.

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NISAR satellite| NASA ISRO Synthetic Aperture RADAR| What is Synthetic Aperture Radar| UPSC

In the 2019 surgical strike, the data from an ISRO satellite RISAT (RADAR Imaging Satellite) was very helpful. In these satellites, the special thing is that this RADAR can see everything in the ground and doesn’t matter it’s day or night, cloudy or sunny. This is called Synthetic Aperture Radar.

Optical satellites rely on sunlight being reflected back into the space from the ground. So they can not work in dark and also their view is obstructed by clouds. RADAR satellites send the radio signals and record the echo return. So they can take the image even at dark and image is not affected by clouds.

India’s first indigenous radar satellite was RISAT-1.

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G7 (Group of 7) and India| G-4, G-6, G-7, G-8, G-10, D-10| Formations, Agendas, Meetings| UPSC

It is a group of Industrial powers and big economies. It includes the US, Britain, France, Germany, Italy, and Japan. It was formed in 1975. Then Canada added and it becomes G-7. After that Russia also added and it becomes G-8. But in 2014, Russia acquired the Cremia of Ukraine. Since Ukraine is a European country and in G-8 there were mostly European countries. Also, European countries said that Russia always does cyber-attack on them. So they removed Russia out of G-8 and again it becomes G-7.

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Anemia Mukt Bharat program| Himachal Pradesh jumped to the third spot

Madhya Pradesh topped the index with a score of 59.3, followed by Odisha. Himachal Pradesh jumped to the third spot from the 18th spot in 2018-19.
Himachal Pradesh government launches program to make the school going students anemia free. In this program, the students from class 6 to class 12 in all government schools were given Iron and Folic acid supplement doses daily.

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