The government is launching an electronic voucher-based digital payment system: e-RUPI

The Indian government is launching an electronic voucher-based digital payment system called e-RUPI which is a cashless and contactless method for digital payment. It is a prepaid UPI e-voucher redeemed either through a QR code or an SMS string.

There is no need of a card, digital payments app, or internet banking access, at the service provider.

This electronic voucher system is already used by many countries like the US, Colombia, Chile, Sweden, Hong Kong, etc.

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NEAR Spacecraft, the first spacecraft to orbit an asteroid

NASA’s NEAR Shoemaker is the first spacecraft to orbit an asteroid and to land on that.


Asteroids, also called minor planets, are small, rocky bodies that are leftover during the formation of planets about 4.5 billion years ago. Billions of such rocks exist in our solar system and majority of them concentrated in the main belt of asteroids between the planets Mars and Jupiter.

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India is launching the most powerful Earth Observation Satellite

ISRO is launching two earth observation satellites (EOS) naming GISAT-1 and RISAT-1A and these are EOS 3 and EOS 4 respectively.
GISAT-1 is going to be the world’s most powerful Earth Observation Satellite which will secure the borders on a Real-time basis.


The GISAT-1 (Geo Imaging Satellite) will be India’s first Indigenous earth observation satellite that is going to be placed in geostationary orbit. This satellite will move with the rotation of the earth, so will look stationary
Its aim is to secure India’s borders in real-time.

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Galileo Project to search for the Extraterrestrial life| Oumuamua

Harvard-based Galileo Project will search for evidence of extraterrestrial life from the alien technology.
Extraterrestrial life is hypothetical life that may exist or may have existed in the universe outside of Earth maybe in exoplanets.


An exoplanet is any planet outside our solar system that can orbit other stars, or can be a free-floating exoplanet also called a rogue planet.
The first exoplanets were discovered in the 1990s and since then thousands of exoplanets were discovered using a variety of detection methods.
It is very rare for astronomers to see an exoplanet through their telescopes which are called direct imaging. A very few exoplanets were discovered through direct imaging.
Most of the exoplanets are found through indirect methods like measuring the dimming of a star that may occur due to a planet passing in front of it, called the transit method, or another method is through Doppler shift.

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India is now the co-chair of Asia Protected Areas Partnership

India is now the co-chair of the IUCN-supported Asia Protected Areas Partnership (APAP) for 3 years till November 2023 after replacing South Korea. Now India is responsible to assist and help other Asian countries in managing the protected areas.

The APAP is chaired by IUCN ( International Union for Conservation of Nature) Asia. It is co-chaired by the member countries of APAP on a rotational basis.

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Protected Areas| What is the difference between Biosphere Reserve and National Park

Protected areas are the areas that require protection because of their natural, ecological or cultural values. The following kinds of protected areas designated by IUCN are in India:

National parks, Wildlife sanctuaries, Biosphere reserves, Reserved and protected forests, Community reserves, Private protected areas

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Kisan Kalyan Yojana| How it will benefit farmers?

Due to the ongoing farmers’ protest, in January 2021 UP CM Yogi Adityanath launched the Kisan Kalyan Mission in his state. Under the Kisan Kalyan Mission, the farmers would be informed about the benefits of the new agriculture laws which were passed by the central government as well.

Krishi Vigyan Kendras

The Kisan Kalyan mission is to deploy the experts in Krishi Vigyan Kendras who will share their knowledge on advanced techniques of farming to increase the income of farmers.
Krishi Vigyan Kendras are agricultural centers that focus on the practical approach of agricultural research. and these centers are linked to the Indian Council of Agricultural Research.

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The World’s Biggest Floating Solar Power Plant is going to build in India

The World’s largest Floating solar energy project is going to construct at the Omkareshwar dam on the Narmada river in Madhya Pradesh by 2023. 


It is a 600 MW plant utilizing solar energy.

The panels can adjust their position automatically when the water level of the dam is low.

It will start generating power by 2022-23.

The floating solar plant is going to be designed in such a way as to withstand strong waves and floods while continue to generate solar power at the same time.

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Rewa, the Largest Solar Power Plant in India| UPSC

 It is the first renewable energy project to supply a customer outside the state, i.e. Delhi Metro, which will get 24% of energy from the project and the remaining 76% being supplied to the state of Madhya Pradesh.

It is India’s first solar project to get funding from the Clean Technology Fund (CTF), which is available at the rate of 0.25%  for a 40-year period from the World Bank. The CTF promotes the low carbon technologies by financing them to shift there.

This project of Rewa will reduce carbon emission to approx. 15 lakh tons of CO2 per year.

It is the first solar project in India to break the “grid parity barrier”.

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Boeing AH-64E Apache Attack Helicopter|UPSC

AH-64 Apache is the world’s best attack helicopter.
It can be equipped with air-to-air missiles and an advanced precision kill weapon system.
It can fight and survive during the day, night, and also in adverse weather throughout the world.

The Apache helicopter is manufactured by the Boeing Company.
The Boeing Company is an American multinational company that designs and manufactures airplanes, rockets, satellites, telecommunications equipment, and missiles worldwide. It is among the largest global aerospace manufacturers.

India has procured AH-64 Apache from Boeing company. It is also used by the US Army.
India has contracted 22 Apache helicopters and 15 Chinook helicopters from Boeing through the Foreign Military Sales program of USA government.

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